Suzani is a type of embroidered and decorative tribal textile made in Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and other Central Asian countries. Suzani is from the Persian سوزن Suzan which means needle. The art of making such textiles in Iran is called سوزندوزیSuzandozi (needlework).
Suzanis usually have a cotton (sometimes silk) fabric base, which is embroidered in silk or cotton thread. Chain, satin, and buttonhole stitches are the primary stitches used. There is also extensive use of couching, in which decorative thread laid on the fabric as a raised line is stitched in place with a second thread. Suzanis are often made in two or more pieces, that are then stitched together
Popular design motifs include sun and moon disks, flowers (especially tulips, carnations, and irises), leaves and vines, fruits (especially pomegranates), and occasional fish and birds.
The oldest surviving suzanis are from the late 18th and early 19th centuries, but it seems likely that they were in use long before that. In the early 15th century, Ruy Gonzáles de Clavijo, the Castilian ambassador to the court of Timur (Tamerlane), left detailed descriptions of embroideries that were probably forerunners of the suzani.
Suzanis were traditionally made by Central Asian brides as part of their dowry, and were presented to the groom on the wedding day. Traditionally the embroidery work began at the birth of a daughter and continued, with the help of family and friends, until the bride’s dowry was complete. The patterns of Suzani are an expression of women’s mood and fantasy. Suzanis are the last exponents of an age-old tradition which draw our attention by their mystery and beauty. The story of each of these suzanis is as rich as their colors, as intricate as the designs that cover their surfaces.
Major types of Suzani:
Khodjent Suzani (Khodjent, Tajikistan)
Nurata Suzani, made in the town of Nurata in Uzbekistan.
Ura Tube Suzani (Istaravshan, Tajikistan)